Holy Bible

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It also refers to books of the New Testament canon whose authorship is misrepresented. The "Old Testament" Pseudepigraphal works include the following: [71]. Notable pseudepigraphal works include the Books of Enoch such as 1 Enoch , 2 Enoch , surviving only in Old Slavonic , and 3 Enoch , surviving in Hebrew , c. These are ancient Jewish religious works, traditionally ascribed to the prophet Enoch , the great-grandfather of the patriarch Noah.

They are not part of the biblical canon used by Jews , apart from Beta Israel. Most Christian denominations and traditions may accept the Books of Enoch as having some historical or theological interest or significance. It has been observed that part of the Book of Enoch is quoted in the Epistle of Jude part of the New Testament but Christian denominations generally regard the Books of Enoch as non-canonical or non-inspired. There arose [ when? These works were also outside the particular set of books that Roman Catholics called deuterocanonical and to which Protestants had generally applied the term Apocryphal.

Accordingly, the term pseudepigraphical , as now used often among both Protestants and Roman Catholics allegedly for the clarity it brings to the discussion , may make it difficult to discuss questions of pseudepigraphical authorship of canonical books dispassionately with a lay audience. To confuse the matter further, Eastern Orthodox Christians accept books as canonical that Roman Catholics and most Protestant denominations consider pseudepigraphical or at best of much less authority.

There exist also churches that reject some of the books that Roman Catholics, Orthodox and Protestants accept.

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The same is true of some Jewish sects. Many works that are apocryphal are otherwise considered genuine. The Old Testament has always been central to the life of the Christian church. Bible scholar N. Wright says "Jesus himself was profoundly shaped by the scriptures. They regarded the "holy writings" of the Israelites as necessary and instructive for the Christian, as seen from Paul's words to Timothy 2 Timothy , and as pointing to the Messiah, and as having reached a climactic fulfillment in Jesus himself, generating the " new covenant " prophesied by Jeremiah.

The New Testament is the name given to the second and final portion of the Christian Bible.

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Jesus is its central figure. The term "New Testament" came into use in the second century during a controversy among Christians over whether or not the Hebrew Bible should be included with the Christian writings as sacred scripture. The New Testament presupposes the inspiration of the Old Testament. The New Testament is a collection of 27 books [77] of 4 different genres of Christian literature Gospels , one account of the Acts of the Apostles , Epistles and an Apocalypse.

These books can be grouped into:. Narrative literature , account and history of the Apostolic age. Pauline Epistles. General epistles , also called catholic epistles. Apocalyptic literature , also called Prophetical. The mainstream consensus is that the New Testament was written in a form of Koine Greek , [78] [79] which was the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean [80] [81] [82] [83] from the Conquests of Alexander the Great — BCE until the evolution of Byzantine Greek c.

The original autographs , that is, the original Greek writings and manuscripts written by the original authors of the New Testament, have not survived. There have been some minor variations, additions or omissions, in some of the texts. When ancient scribes copied earlier books, they sometimes wrote notes on the margins of the page marginal glosses to correct their text — especially if a scribe accidentally omitted a word or line — and to comment about the text.

When later scribes were copying the copy, they were sometimes uncertain if a note was intended to be included as part of the text. The three main textual traditions of the Greek New Testament are sometimes called the Alexandrian text-type generally minimalist , the Byzantine text-type generally maximalist , and the Western text-type occasionally wild. Together they comprise most of the ancient manuscripts. The Old Testament canon entered into Christian use in the Greek Septuagint translations and original books, and their differing lists of texts. In addition to the Septuagint, Christianity [ vague ] subsequently added various writings that would become the New Testament.


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Somewhat different lists of accepted works continued to develop in antiquity. In the 4th century a series of synods produced a list of texts equal to the 39, 46, 51, or book canon of the Old Testament and to the book canon of the New Testament that would be subsequently used to today, most notably the Synod of Hippo in CE.

Also c. With the benefit of hindsight it can be said that this process effectively set the New Testament canon, although there are examples of other canonical lists in use after this time.

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The Protestant Old Testament of today has a book canon — the number of books though not the content varies from the Jewish Tanakh only because of a different method of division — while the Roman Catholic Church recognizes 46 books 51 books with some books combined into 46 books as the canonical Old Testament.

Some include 2 Esdras. The Anglican Church also recognizes a longer canon. The New Testament writers assumed the inspiration of the Old Testament, probably earliest stated in 2 Timothy , "All scripture is given by inspiration of God". There are 81 books in the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible. The three books of Meqabyan are not to be confused with the books of Maccabees. The order of the other books is somewhat different from other groups', as well. The Second Epistle to Timothy says that "all scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness".

Holy Bible: King James Version by Anonymous

Within these broad beliefs many schools of hermeneutics operate. Jewish antiquity attests to belief in sacred texts, [90] [91] and a similar belief emerges in the earliest of Christian writings.


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Various texts of the Bible mention divine agency in relation to its writings. The original texts of the Tanakh were mainly in Hebrew, with some portions in Aramaic. There are several different ancient versions of the Tanakh in Hebrew, mostly differing by spelling, and the traditional Jewish version is based on the version known as Aleppo Codex. Even in this version there are words which are traditionally read differently from written, because the oral tradition is considered more fundamental than the written one, and presumably mistakes had been made in copying the text over the generations.

The Holy Bible, Appropriated: An Illustrated Scripture by Broomberg and Chanarin

The primary biblical text for early Christians was the Septuagint. In addition, they translated the Hebrew Bible into several other languages. Translations were made into Syriac, Coptic , Ethiopic , and Latin, among other languages. The Latin translations were historically the most important for the Church in the West, while the Greek-speaking East continued to use the Septuagint translations of the Old Testament and had no need to translate the New Testament.


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The earliest Latin translation was the Old Latin text, or Vetus Latina , which, from internal evidence, seems to have been made by several authors over a period of time. It was based on the Septuagint, and thus included books not in the Hebrew Bible. According to the Latin Decretum Gelasianum also known as the Gelasian Decree , thought to be of a 6th-century document [99] [] of uncertain authorship and of pseudepigraphal papal authority variously ascribed to Pope Gelasius I , Pope Damasus I , or Pope Hormisdas [] [] [] but reflecting the views of the Roman Church by that period, [] the Council of Rome in AD under Pope Damasus I — assembled a list of books of the Bible.

Damasus commissioned Saint Jerome to produce a reliable and consistent text by translating the original Greek and Hebrew texts into Latin.

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This translation became known as the Latin Vulgate Bible , in the fourth century AD although Jerome expressed in his prologues to most deuterocanonical books that they were non- canonical. Since the Protestant Reformation , Bible translations for many languages have been made. John Riches, professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow , provides the following view of the diverse historical influences of the Bible:. It has inspired some of the great monuments of human thought, literature, and art; it has equally fuelled some of the worst excesses of human savagery, self-interest, and narrow-mindedness.

It has inspired men and women to acts of great service and courage, to fight for liberation and human development; and it has provided the ideological fuel for societies which have enslaved their fellow human beings and reduced them to abject poverty. It has, perhaps above all, provided a source of religious and moral norms which have enabled communities to hold together, to care for, and to protect one another; yet precisely this strong sense of belonging has in turn fuelled ethnic, racial, and international tension and conflict. In Islam , the Bible is held to reflect true unfolding revelation from God ; but revelation which had been corrupted or distorted in Arabic: tahrif ; which necessitated the giving of the Qur'an to the Islamic prophet , Muhammad , to correct this deviation.

Members of other religions may also seek inspiration from the Bible. For example, Rastafaris view the Bible as essential to their religion [] and Unitarian Universalists view it as "one of many important religious texts". Biblical criticism refers to the investigation of the Bible as a text, and addresses questions such as authorship, dates of composition, and authorial intention. It is not the same as criticism of the Bible , which is an assertion against the Bible being a source of information or ethical guidance, or observations that the Bible may have translation errors.

In the 17th century Thomas Hobbes collected the current evidence to conclude outright that Moses could not have written the bulk of the Torah. Shortly afterwards the philosopher Baruch Spinoza published a unified critical analysis, arguing that the problematic passages were not isolated cases that could be explained away one by one, but pervasive throughout the five books, concluding that it was "clearer than the sun at noon that the Pentateuch was not written by Moses Biblical archaeology is the archaeology that relates to and sheds light upon the Hebrew Scriptures and the Christian Greek Scriptures or the "New Testament".

It is used to help determine the lifestyle and practices of people living in biblical times. There are a wide range of interpretations in the field of biblical archaeology.